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In offices, schools and other buildings, fire drills should be held from time to time. Fire drills can hone actions in case of real danger. When the alarm goes off, you won’t know for sure whether something is threatening you or not, so every fire training should be taken seriously.
Signs of occurrence
The characteristic smell of rubber, dense smoke and power outages are usually a sign of a starting fire due to overloading the wiring. Then the insulation ignites or smolders along with nearby things.
The most dangerous occurrence of a fire as a result of a gas explosion or the ignition of flammable liquids, as it quickly covers a large area. Open windows, doors, working ventilation also contribute to the spread of flame.
The so-called silent fire due to an unquenched cigarette in bed or a smoldering cigarette butt in a plastic bin at night, or non-observance of other fire safety rules in an apartment can take many lives.
In most cases, the onset of fire begins with heating, smoldering, and the appearance of a slight flame. In such a situation, the rules of conduct in case of fire will help to cope with the fire on their own with the help of available fire-fighting means.
Actions during a fire largely depend on the place where the fire was detected (apartment, warehouse, garage) and factors affecting the spread of fire. In any case, in order not to get confused in a critical situation, you need to clearly imagine the algorithm of actions in case of fire.
It would seem that everyone knows what needs to be done in case of fire - call the fire department by calling “101” (or by calling “112”). This action is obvious, but in reality, people often ignore this first paragraph of the safe fire behavior plan.
Of course, if the area covered by the fire is very small, and the fire in the initial stage can be extinguished literally with a glass of water, you can not resort to the help of firefighters. But if the flame took possession of a vast territory, the rules of safe behavior oblige professionals to trust in a fire.
After assessing the degree of danger for themselves and their neighbors, after a call, rescuers need to quickly leave the room and warn others about the incident.
It is important not only to follow the rules of safe behavior, but also to have the right psychological attitude. Exposure will help to objectively assess the situation and act appropriately to the conditions, also reassuring people nearby. Keeping calm is much easier when you clearly know how to act in a fire.
General plan of action
General rules of conduct in case of fire are prescribed in the fire safety instructions and evacuation plan. They are applicable in case of emergency both in a personal apartment and in a production room.
- Call firefighters by telephone “01”, “101” or “112”. Information about the address, characteristics of the place of fire, burning facility (item), other clarifying information, as well as the name and surname of the caller, phone number.
- In case of small fire, try to extinguish the fire with water, sand, a dense cloth or special fire extinguishing means. Do not extinguish electrical appliances with water.
- To warn about the fire of other people, avoiding panic.
- If the flame spreads significantly, leave the room immediately. Elevators are prohibited.
- When smoke evacuation paths breathe through a damp cloth, move, bending down to the floor. Remember that smoke is very toxic!
- If it is impossible to leave the room, stay in the room, closing windows and doors, attract eyewitnesses through the glass.
- Meet firefighters, show the car a convenient path to the source of ignition.
Thinking over how to act in case of fire in case of self-extinguishing it, do not minimize the threat of even a minor fire. Under suitable conditions, fire can spread very quickly, and thick smoke can penetrate through wet tissue, losing consciousness in a few breaths.
Considering these factors, it is necessary to provide in the plan of extinguishing a path free of fire and smoke. The exact implementation of this plan will prevent mistakes that could lead to tragic consequences.
Helping firefighters evacuate people
Evacuation usually begins even before the fire department arrives at the scene. For compliance with instructions on what to do in case of fire in a production building, the head of the enterprise and security personnel are responsible.
According to the order, the leading official reports to the arrived firefighters about the measures taken and the number of people removed from the building. The security post, acting in accordance with the evacuation plan, opens the doors of emergency exits and directs people to them. Staff can also assist firefighters by maintaining calm, obeying management instructions, and following an evacuation plan.
If a fire occurred in the apartment, it is necessary to notify the neighbors about what happened, to help the children, the elderly, the disabled to leave the room. In a critical situation, people are prone to suggestion, so when explaining what to do in a fire, you need to accompany your actions with a calm, confident voice.
In one of the Russian cities, a taxi driver, hearing cries for help from a burning private house, helped a woman and her child get out. Although fire did not allow to enter through the door, he was not at a loss and with the help of a ladder he entered the second floor, where the victims were.
Most likely, casual people will have to provide first aid to the victims. If they include those who are not indifferent to what is happening and who know the basic principles of medicine, then subsequent recovery in victims will be faster.
The damaging factors of the fire usually cause toxic smoke poisoning, burns, as well as dislocations and fractures in the event of collapse of buildings. Therefore, you should remember some useful actions.
According to the instructions, in case of injury by toxic gases and smoke, the victim is taken out to clean air, laid with his legs raised, freed from clothing, and convinced of the airway.
When vomiting, you must turn your head to one side to prevent suffocation. If spontaneous breathing is absent, perform mechanical ventilation.
In case of burns, it is necessary to free the affected part of the body from clothing, excluding the burn itself. Then cover it with a sterile dressing, disinfecting adjacent tissues, and cover it with bags or bottles with ice or cold water.
With a dislocation or fracture, it is important to limit the mobility of the limb. Bleeding can be stopped using a tourniquet, treating the wound with alcohol and applying a sterile dressing.
During a fire
In the event that the fire blocked all the escape routes, it is necessary to take refuge in a room as far from the source of ignition as possible - where there is no fire and less smoke. Stay there waiting for help. You can tell your relatives where you are by phone or on social networks so that EMERCOM employees can find you as soon as possible. Also use any methods of attracting attention: shout, call the rescue service and call the coordinates, as well as attract attention to yourself by any means. If possible, it is better not to open the windows if they are in the room, because oxygen can enhance combustion.
Jumping out the window is also dangerous, but sometimes this is the only possible way to escape. Therefore, be sure to remain calm and evaluate all the risks.
In a room with too much smoke, hold onto walls and handrails as you move toward the exit. If you go in the wrong direction, you will immediately feel the increase in air temperature.
If you are surrounded by panic and a stampede has begun, you should group. Tilt the case back, rest your feet forward, and bend your arms at your elbows and press them to your sides, clenching your fists, holding back the pressure, slowly move forward.
Skip children and the elderly. If your child is with you, put him on your shoulders. However, in case of smoke it is better that the child is downstairs - lead him in front of you.