How to pass a urine test? How to pass the urine of a child for analysis? What you need to know and what to focus on?
Often we encounter such a problem as passing medical tests. Each of them requires specific training or special conditions. Most often, we come across tests such as a general blood test and a general urine test. Any of them is informative in its own way. Particular attention should be paid to the general analysis of urine, since not everyone knows how to properly prepare for it and how to pass a urinalysis correctly.
Why do you need a general urine test?
First of all, you should determine what it is used for. Usually, a general urinalysis is prescribed for the timely diagnosis of concomitant diseases, but with diseases of the urinary system, this analysis plays one of the dominant roles. In addition to it, such tests as daily monitoring of urine output, Nechiporenko analysis, urine analysis according to Zimnitsky, etc. can be prescribed. In addition, advanced tests can be performed (for example, using labeled iodine).
What can be determined in the analysis of urine?
Using this procedure, the state of urine is assessed, which normally should be sterile, have a certain density and pH. Indicators such as density, acidity, color, transparency, the presence of salts and pathological components (bacteria, mucus) are evaluated. In addition, the presence of blood cells such as red blood cells and white blood cells is assessed.
Other components may appear in the analysis, for example, metal salts or their derivatives. Their appearance in the urine usually indicates a violation of the diet and an increase in the permeability of the renal filter (glomerular system) (for example, the appearance in the general analysis of salts, namely oxalates - salts of oxalic acid).
Often in the general analysis of urine, blood cells may also appear. If white blood cells are determined, it should be remembered that up to 4 cells in women and up to 2 in men can normally be contained in urine. Numbers larger than the above indicate that there is inflammation or an infectious process. There are no normal red blood cells (sometimes only one red blood cell is allowed). If the amount increases, you should immediately suspect a disease of the kidneys or urinary tract.
When is a general urine test prescribed?
A general analysis of urine is part of compulsory research, especially at the outpatient and outpatient stages. Judging by the change in the indicators of the analysis, the therapist concludes whether you need qualified medical care, or whether you can manage his efforts and help at the reception.
In addition, the analysis is mandatory for all patients with pathology of the urinary tract, as well as systemic metabolic disorders or hereditary diseases.
Be sure to conduct such an analysis in determining the indicators of the disability group. In addition, this analysis is included in the mandatory list of tests for routine examinations, employment, obtaining a driver’s license, when applying for children to enroll in a kindergarten or school.
This analysis is also used as one of the dominant in identifying pathologies of the reproductive system (for example, trichomoniasis or gonorrhea).
Errors during urine collection in a baby girl
The most common mistakes made during the collection of urine for examination in babies of the first year of life are:
- Use for collecting urine diapers, diapers, cotton wool. Some parents put a piece of cotton wool between their labia majora and then, after urinating, squeeze it into a jar. Others prefer to use a diaper or diaper for this purpose. In this case, tissue fibers, bacteria and other impurities inevitably enter the urine.
- Non-compliance with the rules of hygiene of the external genital organs. Immediately before collecting urine for analysis, the girl must be thoroughly washed. Otherwise, bacteria from the anus, perineal skin will also get into the sample.
- Untimely delivery of urine to the laboratory. Many parents at the doctor’s appointment ask whether urine can be collected in the evening and delivered to the laboratory the next day in the morning. You can’t do this. With prolonged storage in the urine, various bacteria begin to proliferate actively, its acid-base indicator changes.
All these errors reduce the reliability of the analysis results.
How to pass the analysis?
What you should know about how to take a general urine test?
First of all, a thorough toilet of the external genital organs should be done (especially for women, since it is they who most often observe the incorrect interpretation of the tests due to bacteria and mucus from the vagina that enter the urethra). It is best to take a hygienic shower immediately before going to the toilet and the subsequent collection of urine in a jar.
Urine is best collected in a clean and sterile jar (you can purchase a special jar for testing at the pharmacy). Inadequate cleaning of the jar can create a false impression that the urine contains pathogenic bacteria (this is especially often the case when juice and pickle jars are used for testing).
What urine to be tested? It should be recruited from the so-called medium portion (it is recommended that the urination act be divided into three stages. The first urine goes down the toilet, then the middle portion is collected, and the next third also goes down the drain). This is done in order to exclude the ingress of microflora into the urine contained in the external part of the urethra.
Additional urine collection requirements
How much to pass urine for analysis? You should not take a full container, you can limit yourself to 30-50 ml (this amount is enough to determine all the necessary indicators).
Often there may be a situation when it is necessary to determine in the urine such a component as diastase (a modified amylase enzyme). The immediate preparation for the analysis remains the same, but the only requirement for the correctness of the analysis is the urgent determination of diastase (the longer urine is, the less likely it is to be in it).
It is especially important to take urination for analysis in the morning. Since it is the most concentrated, which allows us to determine more accurately the indicators that interest us.
Urinalysis should not be collected in a hurry, as this can lead to distortion of indicators (for example, the appearance of white blood cells in the urine with significant physical exertion).
The main function of daily monitoring of diuresis and the rules for its conduct
Some nephrological diseases can occur with an increase or decrease in the amount of urine excreted. Especially for this, a technique was created that allows you to determine what the average daily urinary rate in humans is.
How to take a daily urine test?
And the patient will have a difficult procedure - to pass a daily urine test. How to take it, the patient must tell the doctor. First, you should instruct the patient about the upcoming procedure, since if you do not explain to the patient how to pass a urinalysis correctly, various misunderstandings may arise. From 6 am the next day, direct collection begins. The patient is given eight cans to collect urine (every three hours, if there is a urge to urinate, the patient should urinate in the appropriate jar). The collection starts at 6 in the morning and ends in a day. If the patient did not want to use the toilet for a certain period of time, the corresponding can remains empty.
The next day, they study how much urine was excreted by the patient per day, in what volume and at what time of day. Based on the data obtained, a decision is made on impaired urination and urination and a preliminary diagnosis is made.
Urinalysis in children
The children's body is more susceptible to infections than the adult body. Many of them, giving complications, affect the kidneys. That is why it is extremely important to collect a urine test for timely diagnosis of the disease. How to pass a urine test to a child?
Any adult should know how to help get their baby tested. According to the collection method, the general analysis is the same as in adults. It is much more difficult to take an analysis in newborns and infants, since they can not be forced to go small. How to pass urine to a baby? It is best to use special urine containers for young children. They are sold in every pharmacy and are perfect for kids of any age. The bottom line is simple - the urinal is a bag with a hole for collection and Velcro along its edges. It can be glued to the legs of the baby and at the right time, when the child wants to urinate, the urine itself will be collected in this bag.
If it is not possible to buy such an urinal, you can use the rubber circle. A plate is placed in the center of the circle, and the baby is placed on top. When he wants to urinate, the discharge will drain into a plate, from where they can be taken for analysis.
Urine collection in the elderly
With age, it becomes increasingly difficult for a person to maintain normal health. Gradually, violations of a particular organ system begin to appear. This also applies to the urinary system. Some older people may develop urinary incontinence (due to weakening sphincters). What to do if we need to take urine for analysis from grandfather or grandmother? How to take a general urine test for the elderly and those who have urination disorders?
Alternatively, you can use exactly the same urine collectors as in babies. Their use will not cause inconvenience to the elderly.
Another method that is often used is catheterization of the urethra or bladder. In case of incontinence, the discharge will immediately enter the urine catheter. The disadvantages of this method is that the urine will no longer be sterile (it is not always possible to carry out hygiene procedures for an elderly person, and the catheter itself can become a source of infection over time). Therefore, it is best to avoid staging a urinary catheter and dispense with superficial urine collectors.
What foods or substances can affect urine composition?
Often, a urinalysis may be interpreted incorrectly. This will depend on what substances and cells, in addition to those of interest to us, will be present in the secretions. How does this manifest?
- Products such as cabbage, sorrel, fatty meats can change the acidity of urine.
- Color can change under the influence of carotene contained in carrots, or flavanoids contained in beets. It can also turn green when eating large quantities of immature vegetables.
- A change in the cellular composition of urine with a predominance of leukocytes can be observed during treatment with some antibiotics (for example, nitrofurans).
- Density can increase due to an increased release of proteins in the urine (if the glomerular system is not affected, then a large amount of meat can become a source of protein in the urine).
- A precipitate in the urine appears when there is an infection in the genitourinary tract or in the treatment of diseases of the genitourinary tract with preparations containing starch or calcium.
The main mistakes in collecting analysis
How to pass a urine test to prevent mistakes?
Unfortunately, many people, even if they are familiar with the rules for collecting urine, can make the most banal mistakes. Someone will forget about the cleanliness of the dishes, someone will take a hygienic shower before the procedure, and some may even bring yesterday or yesterday's urine. All this can affect the results of the analysis.
The most common mistake in collecting such an analysis is that on the eve (or even in the morning) people eat heavily. It should be remembered that regarding a blood test, taking even a small portion of food can lead to the appearance of physiological leukocytosis (an increase in white blood cells in the blood), which can affect the decoding of the analysis. The same applies to urinalysis (since the main component of blood is plasma, which is filtered by the kidneys, and due to leukocytosis, leukocytes can be released into the urine and a false picture of the presence of infection can be created).
Based on the foregoing, one can understand that everyone is obliged to know how to take a general urine test, because you never know when this knowledge can come in handy.
How to pass a urine test to a child
In any case, you need to know how to pass a urine test to a child.
For analysis, concentrated morning urine is needed, which the kidneys develop at night.
The most accurate indicators will be obtained if you collect urine for analysis in the middle of urination. To do this, give the child a little urination in the toilet or pot, and only after that place the dishes to collect the analysis.
Before collecting urine for analysis, it is necessary to conduct thorough hygienic procedures of the baby's external genital organs. Gently wipe the girl’s lips moistened with warm water with a cotton swab, and wash the boy’s lips by slightly pulling the skin off the head of the penis.
If you cannot collect a portion of urine in a clean jar, then repeat this procedure the next morning. It is not recommended to give urine from a pot for analysis, since in this case the result obtained in the laboratory may be erroneous. Dishes with urine should be delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible. If you overexpose it, then the results of laboratory tests can be the most unpredictable. If you can’t take urine for analysis in a short time, you should not put it in the refrigerator, and even more so freeze it. In this case, salt may precipitate in the urine, and the laboratory assistant will make an incorrect conclusion.
It is much more difficult to collect a urine test in infants and newborns, especially girls. Pediatricians offer to solve this problem as follows: wrap a rubber pad in a thin diaper, put a clean plate in the recess, where urine will drain. Now you need to put the child in a circle and wait for the baby to want to empty. Pour the urine into a clean jar for analysis. Urine is collected from the boys by lowering the penis into the dishes for collection of tests.
However, now it is much easier to solve this problem by buying a special disposable children's urine bag at the pharmacy. It is a small bag with a hole and Velcro along the edges. This urinal is universal and suitable for both girls and boys. To collect urine, use the instructions provided by attaching the urinal to the baby’s body. Before using it, you need to wash and thoroughly wipe the baby, otherwise the urine collector may simply not stick to wet skin. Once it is full, peel off the edges of the urinal and close the hole. It is better to buy several such devices at once, so that in case of an unsuccessful attempt you still have spare urine collectors.
According to the transparency of urine, its color and general appearance, you can independently determine some facts. Normally, the urine of the child should have a light yellow color, be transparent without foreign components. The turbid color of urine, a brown or brownish tint, and a sediment in the form of flakes should alert you. As a rule, such symptoms indicate various inflammatory processes that occur in the child's body.
What device to use to collect urine in a child?
Naturally, urine must be collected in some kind of sterile container. As such containers are suitable:
- special medical urinal,
- plastic container or glass jar,
- new plastic bag.
Whatever capacity is chosen, it is important that it is clean or sterile. So, if it is a medical container or urinal, they must be new and open only before collecting the analysis. If this is a glass jar, then it must first be boiled. And if you use the package, then it must be new, never used.
How to collect biomaterial by urinal?
This device is a plastic bag with an opening for the genitals of the baby. The urinal is attached to safe Velcro between the legs of the baby. If you attach the bag correctly, then all the urine of the crumbs will collect in it. If used improperly, it will leak past the bag.
It is not recommended to put the urinal under the diaper, since all urine will flow into the diaper, and not into the bag. An infant, a boy or a girl, should be upright while collecting urine for analysis, so you should be patient and hold the baby a little in your arms. If the biomaterial is collected, it is transferred to a sterile container and immediately taken to the laboratory of the clinic.
So, in general, instructions for collecting urine in an infant through a medical urinal look like this:
- Подмыть ребенка и тщательно его вытереть, вымыть себе руки.
- Изъять мочеприемник из упаковки.
- Убрав защитную пленку, правильно приклеить пакетик между ножек крохи. If you have a newborn girl, stick the device around the labia of the baby. If you have a newborn boy, put his genitals inside the bag.
- Now you need to take the baby in her arms in an upright position and wait for the end of the process or make him pee.
- Remove the urinal by gently detaching it from the skin of the baby.
- Pour biomaterial into a sterile container.
- The last step is to pass urine for analysis within 2 hours.
Remember that with the urinal you can collect urine only once - this is a disposable device, it must be disposed of after use. You can buy it at any pharmacy, and it costs very little.
How to collect biomaterial with plastic or glass containers?
A small child cannot control the process of urination. Therefore, this method will require the patience of parents and sleight of hand. Since urine for analysis should be clean, containers for collecting it must be purchased at a pharmacy or, if it is a glass jar, boil and dry it first.
The collection of biomaterial should be carried out, given the time interval of urination of the child. Track in advance how the baby is written, set this time period and prepare for the next “successful” moment. If you have a newborn girl, during urination, place a jar under her genitals, but do not touch her body, otherwise you can frighten away the baby. If you have a newborn boy - substitute the container under the stream, the main thing is to do it on time.
It is more difficult to collect urine from a girl with a glass, so resourceful parents suggest using an ordinary table saucer. It must be sterilized in advance and placed under the baby's ass. When the newborn baby pees, the biomaterial is poured into a sterile jar.
How to collect biomaterial from infants through a plastic bag?
There is no limit to the quick-wittedness and resourcefulness of parents - it turns out that urine can be collected for analysis with an ordinary plastic bag: cheap, affordable, effective. You need to take the package "shirt" - with handles that cut for convenient fixation of the package on the legs of a child. The package on the sides needs to be slightly incised so that its shape remotely resembles a diaper. This simple design is mounted on the baby, after which they expect the "miracle" to be completed.
It is important that the baby is in a horizontal position all this time. When urine is collected in a bag, it must be transferred to a sterile container and sent for analysis to the clinic.
How to make a baby pee?
No matter what tricks parents use to collect urine! How many different tricks were invented to help adults! Let's consider some of them:
- Putting an urinal on the baby, stimulate urination with the sound of pouring water (pour water from a glass into a glass, turn on audio recording with the sounds of a stream or rain).
- Attach a warm diaper to the bottom of the tummy or with a warm hand massage his stomach under the belly button.
- Drink the baby with a warm drink.
- Breastfeed (babies often start to write during HB).
- Dip the baby’s palm in warm water.
- Warm your feet with warm hands or breathing.
- Put your baby on a wet diaper.
A baby can pee right after removing the diaper - be prepared for this, do not miss the moment.
Recommendations for collecting urine for analysis
Taking biomaterial for laboratory analysis is easy. But you need to collect it according to certain rules:
- Only freshly collected morning urine is suitable for analysis.
- Before collecting biomaterial, the baby should be thoroughly washed with soap under running warm water, and it does not matter if it is a girl or a boy. After washing, the crumbs should be wiped dry.
- Urine should be collected in a sterile container during urination: it is impossible to collect biomaterial by unscrewing the diaper and squeezing the diapers, since the results of the analysis will be false.
- Urine needs to be taken fresh: biomaterial that has stood for more than 2 hours is not suitable for laboratory analysis.
- If possible, average urine should be collected, as it gives the most accurate analysis results.
If you still have problems collecting urine, you can watch a video of the instructions for each method. Having become acquainted with the theory, in practice you can repeat the fastest and easiest, in your opinion, method. Be prepared for the fact that the first time you can not collect urine. But, as they say, experience comes with practice. And be sure that by the next analysis you will become a professional in this matter.
Now in any pharmacy you can buy special disposable urinals for girls. Their main advantages:
- low price
- prevention of urine spreading,
- the presence on the drive of a graduated scale in milliliters.
The only drawback of the urinal is that its use requires some skill. Before putting it on, the girl should be thoroughly washed with clean warm water. The adhesive tape is removed from the urinal and glued to the pubic skin, inner thighs. After this, the girl should be picked up and held upright to prevent possible leakage of urine. If the baby is nervous and cannot urinate for a long time, she can be given water to drink.
How much urine is needed for analysis, it is advisable to check with your doctor in advance. For a general analysis, at least 5 ml will be required. After the required volume is collected, the urinal is carefully removed. Then, having cut a corner of the drive, urine is carefully poured into a clean, dry container and delivered to the laboratory.
If parents have never used an urinal before and are afraid of using it incorrectly, you can watch a video in which this process is shown in detail.
In the absence of an urinal, a new plastic bag can also be used to collect urine in infants. It is cut on the sides and put on like a diaper, tying the ends on the hips. The baby should be held upright. After urination, the package is removed, urine is poured into a clean jar.
A day before the analysis, from the diet of a nursing mother and complementary foods, the baby should exclude fish, tomatoes, all brightly colored foods (beets, carrots), citrus fruits.
This method is only suitable for children in the first months of life. After six months, they become very active and easily tear off the package or tear it off.
If your doctor has ordered your daughter to take a urine test, it is advisable to purchase a sterile container at the pharmacy in advance. When for one reason or another it is impossible to do this, you can use an ordinary glass jar. Before use, it must be thoroughly washed in a hot solution of baking soda, and then sterilized in a water bath. If the house has a dishwasher, the container can be washed and sterilized in it, choosing the mode with the highest temperature.
The girl, having previously been washed, is laid on her back on a changing table, covered with a waterproof diaper. The legs are pressed to the stomach and hold them in this position. As soon as the act of urination begins, a jar is brought to the genitals and urine is collected in it.
It is impossible to call this method convenient and comfortable both for the girl and for her parents. After a few minutes of being in a forced position, the baby begins to act up, be anxious, and it becomes difficult to catch the right moment. However, in some cases, this option is preferable - for example, this is the only way to take an average portion of urine from an infant for analysis according to Nechiporenko.
In children in the first months of life, during urination or almost immediately after it, urination occurs. Knowing this physiological feature, you can collect urine from a baby girl using a regular plate. Before feeding, a thorough toilet of the baby's external genital organs is carried out, after which a clean, deep plate is placed under the buttocks, which is held in the correct position until the desired result is obtained.
How much urine is needed for analysis, it is advisable to clarify in advance with the doctor who gave the referral. For a general analysis, at least 5 ml will be required.
Using a rubber circle
The rubber circle is washed, wiped dry and wrapped in a diaper. A clean, deep plate is placed in its center. The girl is washed and each of her legs is wrapped in a separate diaper. Then it is laid on a circle and covered with a diaper or blanket, depending on the air temperature in the room. Adults must be near the baby and watch her.
This method of collecting urine is most convenient for girls 1-3 months of life, its use in older children is difficult due to their significant mobility and unwillingness to lie in one position calmly.
Preparation for urine test
Preparing to collect urine for analysis, you should prepare everything you need in advance, and immediately in front of it, hold the toilet of the girl's external genitalia.
A day before the analysis, from the diet of a nursing mother and complementary foods, the baby should exclude fish, tomatoes, all brightly colored foods (beets, carrots), citrus fruits. This limitation is explained by the fact that these products can change the color of urine or cause the appearance of salt crystals (phosphates, urates, oxalates) in it. A single detection of such deviations from the norm is not the basis for making any diagnosis, but will require a retake of the analysis.
Urinalysis is undesirable to be taken in the first few days after vaccination, as well as while taking medications, including antipyretic and analgesic effects.
In children in the first months of life, during urination or almost immediately after it, urination occurs.
Sometimes parents, to speed up the process of collecting urine, give the child to drink an infusion of lingonberry leaf, rose hip or chamomile. This should not be done. These medicinal plants have a diuretic effect and are able to distort the results of laboratory tests. A nursing mother is also not recommended to take infusions of these herbs, as well as to consume a significant amount of watermelon and melon on the eve of the analysis.
Urine for general analysis, Nechiporenko’s samples or Sulkovich’s samples are collected in the morning before the first feeding of the baby and they are delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible. It is allowed to store the collected biological material for no more than 2-3 hours, but only in a cool place to prevent possible reproduction of microorganisms in the urine sample.
If an analysis is scheduled for Addis - Kakovsky, for sugar or adrenal hormones, urine is collected during the day. After each urination, it is poured into one clean container with a lid and stored in a cool place. The next day in the morning, all collected urine is mixed, a small amount is poured into a container and delivered to the laboratory.
If it is necessary to assess the excretory ability of the kidneys, a Reberg-Tareev test can be prescribed. To conduct it, you need to come to the laboratory with the child in the morning. The girl should urinate. After that, blood is drawn from her vein for creatinine, and then urine is collected for two hours. The most convenient in this case is to use the urinal, as this prevents the possible spreading of urine, which, in turn, makes the results of laboratory tests as reliable as possible.