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Lecture 20


On the topic: "Measures for the conservation of biodiversity"

1. What is biodiversity?

2. Convention on Biological Diversity

3. Threats to biodiversity

4. The importance of biodiversity, the need to conserve biodiversity

5. Measures, objectives for the conservation of biodiversity

1. What is biodiversity?

Biodiversity is the diversity of life in all its manifestations. In a narrower sense, biodiversity is understood as diversity at three levels of organization: genetic diversity (the diversity of genes and their variants - alleles), the diversity of species in ecosystems, and finally, the diversity of ecosystems themselves. Huge fields, where more than a hundred species of herbaceous and shrubby plants grow, there is a clear but complex system of interaction between them and animals, when a violation of at least one link can lead to the death of biogeocenosis. Forests, rivers, lakes of Russia, tropical forests of Africa, the sea are the same complex and variable systems of interaction of nature. It is hard to imagine our nature scarce, diverse. Today, more than ever, a great threat to the existence of species and ecosystems. The extinction of species, caused by human activity, continues at an alarming rate, since the current extinction rate of species is the highest over the past 60 million years since the extinction of dinosaurs. According to the forecasts of studies conducted under the auspices of the UN, within the next 30 years, about 25% of the existing species of mammals and about 12% of the species of birds should disappear. Some scientists believe that tens of thousands of tropical rainforest species die out and die out annually due to destruction.

2. Convention on Biological Diversity

In connection with the above facts, the "Convention on Biological Diversity" was adopted in 1992

The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) organized an Ad Hoc Expert Working Group on Biological Diversity in November 1988 to examine the need for an international convention on biological diversity. Soon, in May 1989, she established the Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Technical and Legal Matters to prepare an international legal instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

Since February 1991, the Ad Hoc Working Group became known as the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee. The result of his work was the holding on 22 May 1992 of a Conference in Nairobi on the adoption of an agreed text of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

The Convention was opened for signature on June 5, 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (Planet Earth Summit. It entered into force on December 29, 1993 and was accepted by all countries of the Earth, with the exception of Andorra, Brunei, the Vatican, Iraq, Somalia and the United States.The UN has established International Day for Biological Diversity on the day of its adoption.

The Convention on Biological Diversity is a reflection of the growing commitment of the world community to the principles of sustainable development. It is a significant step forward towards the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits associated with the use of genetic resources.

3. Threats to biodiversity

The development of new lands, the unreasonable use of natural resources and many other areas of human activity cause irreparable damage to the biological diversity of our planet. There are many, many such factors. I will give a few of them.

1) Land development, with concomitant redistribution of water resources. Desertification is intensifying, saline and being removed from the land economy, the soil is contaminated with pesticides and heavy metals. The construction of hydropower facilities, as a result, an unstable water regime with a sharp drop in water level and salinization.

2) Distant livestock. This fact entails the intensification of grazing and overgrazing, deforestation, harvesting of plant materials, poaching, and recreation.

3) Mining and energy industries. The development of industry and the consumption of resources for domestic needs had a significant effect, especially through water pollution, contributing to the damage caused to water and semi-aquatic systems. In addition, significant damage, especially to desert ecosystems, was caused by mining and metallurgy.

Here is an example confirming the negative consequences of unreasonable activity.

The Black Sea region is an important fishing region, which is an important revenue item in the economy. Previously, sturgeons, mullet, mackerel, as well as a number of other species were actively caught here. Biodiversity in the region is threatened by many factors. A large amount of fertilizer is being removed from agricultural land located in the basins of the Don, Dnieper, Dniester and Danube into the Black and Azov Seas. Oil enters the sea in oil ports located on the shore, as well as when transported by tankers. Wastewater from coastal cities and resort areas is often discharged into the sea with little or no treatment. All this leads to water pollution - this means increased development of planktonic algae due to increased intake of nutrients. Blooming planktonic algae reduces the transparency of the water, and too little light penetrates into the bottom layers where multicellular algae grows. Therefore, in the Black Sea, the belt of bottom vegetation has greatly decreased. If earlier brown algae were found to a depth of 10 m, now they do not penetrate deeper than 2.5 m. At the same time, it is the thickets of these algae that are spawning grounds and habitats of juveniles of many marine fish. This leads to a decrease in the reproduction of fish herds and a decrease in fish stocks. Fish stocks may decrease due to the so-called random factor. Predatory ctenophore was accidentally introduced into the Black Sea in the early 1980s. with ballast waters of tankers. This foreign species, having no natural enemies in the Black Sea, quickly multiplied, reaching a very high number. Like many fish, the ctenophore feeds on planktonic eggs and larvae. The competition for food intensified, and in the end the ctenophore emerged victorious from it, causing a further decrease in the number of planktonivorous fish. Over-fishing and penetration of ctenophore caused the collapse of pelagic fishing in the area. In addition to the enormous economic losses of fishermen, a sharp decrease in the chylosity of pelagic fish created optimal conditions for the predatory ctenophore that is now thriving in the Black Sea.

As a result, the decline in fish stock has also affected commercial species. Their number decreased from 48 thousand to 6 thousand, and the total annual catch decreased from 400 thousand tons to 50 thousand tons, that is, eight times. Along with the drop in catches, unemployment sharply increased. The loss of fishing in the Black Sea after the introduction is estimated at millions of dollars annually. In Russia, at the beginning of the 20th century, wild bearded bees, so numerous in recent times, disappeared, although then human intervention in nature was minimal.

4. The importance of biodiversity, the need to conserve biodiversity

Now I would like to tell you more about the significance of biodiversity in the surrounding world.

On the one hand, it may seem that it makes sense to preserve only those species that are profitable in economic development, you can not worry about preserving the rest, since there will be no benefit from using them as industrial raw materials. Arguing in this way, it is worth considering that in nature everything is interconnected, some species cannot exist without the influence of others that have developed historically. And vice versa, the influence of foreign species, the coexistence of which has not developed historically, is detrimental to fishing.

The benefits of biodiversity conservation are closely related to the economy and its impact on sustainable development. The types and results of their livelihoods, for example, biomass production or participation in important biochemical processes (for example, photosynthesis), are always considered materially as renewable capital for primary products (for example, agriculture, forestry or fishing). The benefits of biodiversity conservation can be divided into the following categories:

- The medicine. Over the centuries, the vast majority of medications have been formulated from substances derived from plants and animals. Biological raw materials have not lost their relevance in medicine today.

- The existence of man (and most other organisms, animals and fungi) depends entirely on the activities of the primary producers, which are plants. Today, people use about five thousand plant species for food. But the majority of the population in practice is limited to less than twelve species, with 3-4 species of cultivated plants decisively prevailing in carbohydrate nutrition for a huge part of humanity. From the conservation of biodiversity, direct benefits can be obtained in connection with the use of the gene pool of wild plants to enrich the gene pool of cultivated varieties during selection. Genes from wild relatives can increase the resistance of cultivated plants to pests and diseases, the productivity (yield) of varieties, and also expand the ranges of their adaptation to different environmental parameters

- Wood is the main universally used product, and its source is still wildlife. It is used in construction, furniture production, serves as the main raw material for paper production, and is also used as fuel.

- A reserve of possible economically valuable organisms (future resources). Today, no one knows the exact number of species of living organisms that inhabit the biosphere. To date, about 1.7 million species have been scientifically described, but their total number on the planet is estimated at 5 to 30 million. As science progresses, more and more new taxa of living organisms will be discovered, described and involved in human activity, including and for the growth of human well-being.

- Many types of plants are widely used for decorative purposes. Every year new hybrids and varieties are created and enter the market. One well-known example is Grevillea "Robin Gordon."

- Water protection. The natural vegetation covering the catchment areas contributes to the maintenance of hydrological cycles, regulates the river flow, stabilizes it and plays the role of a kind of “water buffer” during droughts and floods.

- Soil formation and conservation. Protecting soils by maintaining biodiversity can preserve their fertility, prevent landslides, protect the shores of oceans, seas, rivers and lakes from erosion, and coral reefs from siltation.

- Maintaining climate stability. Vegetation affects the climate at the macro, meso and micro levels. Undisturbed forests can help maintain a steady rainfall and return water to the atmosphere through evaporation of its leaves, as well as smooth the wind regime. On another, smaller scale, vegetation has a stabilizing effect on the microclimate. Some organisms for their existence require such certain microclimatic conditions.

- Decomposition and absorption of contaminants. Some ecosystems, in particular wetlands, have qualities that are especially valuable for the decomposition and absorption of pollution. Natural and man-made swamps are used to filter drains and remove nutrients, heavy metals and suspended particles from them.

- Research, education and monitoring. Natural sites are excellent living laboratories for research, it is often necessary to have intact areas of different habitats of living organisms. Such sites serve as control areas with which areas where this or that nature is being used are compared.

- Recreation. People value such places because of the huge variety of recreational activities they represent. Here you can make films, photograph wildlife, or write literary works dedicated to it. People are attracted to the natural habitat of organisms, the natural features of a particular site, here you can observe the life of birds, conduct environmental research and realize other cognitive interests

In short, a decrease in biodiversity may be associated with:

· For example, the loss of only one species can manifest itself in very different ways - from the extinction of the species to the complete collapse of the ecosystem itself. It depends on the role of each species in the ecosystem and on how much it is associated with other species.

· The health of mankind. Cognition of nature is very important for man. It teaches us different values. It is good to walk through the forest, smell the flowers and inhale fresh air. More specific biodiversity-related values ​​- foods derived from natural products and raw materials for the preparation of medicines

Several ethical arguments can be put forward in defense of the conservation of all species, regardless of their economic value. The following considerations are important for conservation biology, since they present logical arguments in defense of rare species and species that do not have obvious economic value.

• Each species has a right to exist. All species are part of being and therefore have as many rights to life as people, each species is valuable in itself, regardless of the needs of the person. How can one give the right to existence and legislatively protect species devoid of human consciousness and the concepts of morality, law and duty? And how can species of non-animal origin, such as mosses or mushrooms, have rights when they do not even have a nervous system to appropriately perceive the environment?

• All species are interdependent. Loss of one species can have far-reaching consequences for other species of the community. As a result, other species may become extinct, and the entire community will be destabilized as a result of the extinction of species groups.

• Correlation of human interests and biological diversity. It is sometimes believed that caring for nature protection frees us from caring for human life, but this is not so. Understanding the complexity of human culture and the natural world makes a person respect and protect all life in its many forms. It is also true that people will be better able to protect biodiversity when they have full political rights, livelihoods and environmental knowledge. The struggle for the social and political progress of the poor and disenfranchised people is comparable in efforts to environmental protection.

• Nature has its spiritual and aesthetic value superior to its economic value. Throughout history, it has been noted that religious thinkers, poets, writers, artists and musicians drew inspiration from nature. For many people, an important source of inspiration was admiring the pristine wildlife. A simple reading about the species or observation in museums, gardens, zoos, films about nature - all this is not enough. Almost everyone enjoys aesthetic enjoyment from wildlife and landscapes.

• Biological diversity is necessary to determine the origin of life. There are three main secrets in world science: how life came about, where did all the diversity of life on earth come from and how humanity is evolving. Thousands of biologists are working to solve these problems and are unlikely to come closer to understanding them. For example, recently taxonomists using molecular techniques have discovered that a bush from New Caledonia in the Pacific Ocean is the only surviving species from an ancient genus of flowering plants. However, when such species disappear, important keys to solving the main puzzles are lost, and the mystery becomes more and more unsolvable. If the closest relatives of a person - chimpanzees, baboons, gorillas and orangutans disappear - we will lose important keys to understanding human evolution

5. Measures, objectives for the conservation of biodiversity

It is rather difficult to determine the need to preserve and maintain biodiversity in some areas in some objective way, since it depends on the point of view of the person who evaluates this need. The following 10 principles can serve as a guide for individuals and organizations participating in the Global Biodiversity Strategy.

1. Все живые существа уникальны и важны для человечества 2. Сохранение биоразнообразия – это сохранение ресурсов, которые важны и выгодны как в национальном, так и в глобальном общечеловеческом масштабе. 3. Расходы, необходимые для сохранения биоразнообразия, доходы и прибыль, которые дает эта деятельность, должны распределятся равномерно между разными нациями и между людьми внутри отдельных стран. four.As part of a large-scale activity to achieve the sustainable development of mankind, the conservation of biodiversity requires a fundamental change in the approaches, structure and practice of economic development throughout the world. 5. Increasing funding for biodiversity conservation activities will not slow down the rate of species extinction, special state policies and a whole range of reforms (in legislation, environmental protection structure, etc.) are needed that will create conditions that make the increase in biodiversity conservation costs effective. 6. Priorities for the conservation of biodiversity vary at different levels. That is, local priorities may not coincide with global ones, but their priorities are no less important and significant than global ones. Those. Work on the conservation of biodiversity within the whole of humanity cannot be limited to the protection of only a few particularly rich ecosystems (such as tropical forests or coral reefs) 7. The conservation of biodiversity in the future can be a sustainable process only when society is concerned and convinced in the need for action in this direction. 8. Actions to conserve biodiversity should be planned and implemented on the basis of environmental and social priorities equally. Those. this activity should not only cover protected natural areas (for example, nature reserves, habitats of various rare species, etc.), but also the area where people live and work. 9. Cultural diversity is closely linked to natural diversity. The ideas of mankind about the diversity of nature, its significance and use are based on the cultural diversity of peoples and vice versa, actions to preserve biological diversity often enhance cultural integration and increase its significance. 10. Increasing public participation, respect for basic human rights, facilitating people's access to education and information, enhancing the accountability of politicians, ministries and departments to society in their activities are the most important conditions under which successful biodiversity conservation activities are possible.

In the field of biodiversity, the following tasks are considered. Economic - the inclusion of biodiversity in the macroeconomic indicators of the country, potential economic income from biodiversity, including direct (medicine and raw materials and materials for breeding and pharmacy, etc.), and indirect (ecotourism), as well as costs - restoration of destroyed biodiversity . Management - the creation of partnerships by involving in joint activities state and commercial organizations, the army and navy, non-governmental organizations, the local population and the whole public. Legal - the inclusion of terms and concepts related to biodiversity in all relevant legislation, the creation of legal support for the conservation of biodiversity. Scientific - formalization of decision-making procedures, search for biodiversity indicators, compilation of biodiversity inventories, monitoring organization.

Among the main measures for the conservation of biodiversity, the Red Book occupies an important place. The Red Book is an annotated list of rare and endangered animals, plants and mushrooms. The Red Books come at various levels — international, national, and regional. The first organizational task of protecting rare and endangered species is their inventory and accounting both globally and in individual countries. Without this, one can neither proceed to the theoretical development of the problem, nor to practical recommendations for the salvation of certain species. The task is not simple, and even 30-35 years ago, the first attempts were made to compile first regional and then world reports of rare and endangered species of animals and birds. However, the information was either too concise and contained only a list of rare species, or, on the contrary, was very cumbersome, because it included all the available data on biology and set out the historical picture of the reduction of their ranges. The maintenance of the Red Book of the Russian Federation is a constant work on monitoring rare and endangered species, on the implementation of the mentioned legal guarantees.

Endangered species listed in the Red Book are becoming the object of the country's environmental policy. To preserve them, nature reserves or national parks are created. The reserve is a protected natural area on which the entire natural complex is protected, where any human activity is prohibited, except for scientific research. Even people's access there is extremely limited. The national park, unlike nature reserves, where human activity is almost completely prohibited (hunting, tourism, etc. are prohibited), tourists are allowed into the national parks, economic activity is allowed on a limited scale. The system of state reserves of Russia as of 01.01.96 includes 93 reserves that protect 30 million hectares, or almost 1.5% of the total area of ​​Russia, which exceeds the territories of Belarus, Latvia and Estonia combined. There are only 39 national parks in the country. Management of reserve systems. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the scientific community forced the government to pay attention to the problem of preserving at least small sections of wildlife. Then, reserves were created in all countries of the world. It seemed that it was enough to take a certain territory, not to allow a person there, and the protected objects would exist forever. In world practice, there are cases when the creation of reserves on the contrary accelerated the extinction of the species. So, the Turanian tiger disappeared from the face of the earth 34 years after the opening of the Tigrovaya Balka nature reserve, the leopard in the territory of the Caucasian nature reserve disappeared 24 years later. In these cases, the animals remained for some time outside the reserves. The lifetime of an endangered species has reduced the isolation of the protected area.

The same closure can affect in a different way. Grizzly Bears lived in Yellowstone National Park. They did not disappear, but scientists noticed that for five generations the bears began to noticeably smaller. An analogy can be drawn: island forms of biovids are always smaller than mainland ones. For example, on the islands of the Sunda archipelago, dwarf species of rhino, buffalo are known, and on the Mediterranean islands even dwarf species of African fauna.

The confined space still indicates the limited number of animals, especially when it comes to large animals. This exposes protected species to hazards such as inbreeding (closely related crossbreeding). Because of this, the Przhevlsky horses died in the French reserve. However, the other side is also known: if the species is not limited in the settlement space, then the biovid can begin its population even with a dozen individuals. Only five individuals of the muskrat brought to Europe gave rise to a population.

Even the normal reproduction of animals in protected areas may be hindered by the extreme relations between individuals. It was believed that it is enough to plant a male and a female in the cage, and reproduction is ensured. In practice, it turned out that the animals did not notice the heterogeneity, a kind of love in the animal world (yes, the feeling of love can be attributed not only to humans), or they were so aggressive towards each other that they had to be seated in different cells.

In order to guarantee the conservation of bio species in its territory, the reserve must be properly designed. First of all, it is important to calculate the area of ​​the space so that the animals are not limited in their personal territory, and they can feel as free as many individuals as necessary in order to minimize closely related crosses (this is determined by genetics, data range from 50 to 100 individuals) plus the same the space should be at the proposed offspring of a protected species. Under normal conditions, each animal has its own individual hunting area. For the beast, it’s important not the area, but what it contains: the presence of shelters, the amount of food and the absence of disturbing factors. For example, a tiger needs a population of boars of at least 250 individuals, which in turn also need enough food. When planning the reserve, it is important to take the maximum value of the individual hunting area. After all, the amount of food can change over the years, and sometimes change at times, and the animal is usually reluctant to expand an individual hunting area, this is due to "combat" clashes with neighbors and it takes more energy to search for prey, so the animal tries not to cross the boundaries of this space, eating something else. So in the taiga, predators often switch to pine nuts. Thus, the total area of ​​the reserve should be equal to the sum of the maximum areas of individual hunting spaces. Only one conclusion suggests itself: the larger the reserve’s area, the more endangered species we will preserve.

The Curonian Spit is one of the largest accumulative formations on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This place is listed as a World Heritage Site as an international Russian-Lithuanian cultural complex. By its geographical position and topography, the Spit is a unique formation. The main elements of the area are dune complexes, one of the highest in Europe (up to 68 m in height), stretched along the peninsula more than 70 km long.

Due to its geographical location and orientation from southwest to northeast, the Curonian Spit has become a “guideline” for migratory bird species. Along the spit are bird migrations from northwestern Russia, Finland and the East Baltic countries to central and southern Europe. Every spring and autumn, 10-20 million birds fly along the spit, and a significant number of them stop here for rest and food. On Kos, which is called the Baltic Flyway, birds from reserves on the White Sea coast concentrate twice a year. Among these birds there are many rare and threatened species listed in the Red Books of Russia, Europe and the world.

The landscapes of the Curonian Spit were formed as a result of not only purely natural processes, but also human activity. This is an example of the harmonious interaction of nature and people. The Curonian tribe that once inhabited the Scythe has disappeared, but its ethnographic heritage is still noticeable. The landscape with the village covered with dune sand in the 18-19 centuries differs little from the modern one. Scythe is rich in traces of cultural heritage. Protective engineering structures are unique in size and in general are of great importance in terms of history, science and art. Fishing villages, archaeological sites and religious architectural buildings are naturally integrated into the landscape. The Curonian Spit is an amazing natural phenomenon, which in terms of its landscape beauty has no equal in the whole Baltic region. A diverse and highly diversified dune relief in combination with green forests, bright whiteness of sandy beaches and the vast expanses of the Baltic Sea, all this creates a high aesthetic value.

Now the situation in Russia is such that it is not up to the nature reserves that, in the view of the layman, are needed for an unknown, alien future. The policy of the authorities in the field of nature management and nature conservation is simple and transparent: to eliminate everything that impedes the development of capitalism. In the President’s annual addresses to the Federal Assembly, environmental concerns are not even mentioned. It seems that they are being hushed up because their discussion more and more often reveals the facts of assistance of the authorities to business in its claims to the right to completely control nature. In 2003-2004, 8 state nature reserves and 4 national parks opposed the problem of land capture. Almost all of these attempts were initiated or supported by the local administration. National parks "Bashkiria" and "Yugyd va" were especially affected. In the territories launched the construction of reservoirs, developing minerals.

Approved in 1994, the plan for the organization of reserves was not implemented and 1/3! Of the 114, only 23 were built, and from 2001 to 2006 not a single one was created!

The situation improved in 2007: about 5 reserves in the east were built. The number of free bison populations in the European part of Russia has reached 150 individuals, the number of Amur tigers has stabilized, WWF is monitoring the status of the polar bear population in Chukotka. Also in 2007, Russia took the 1st place in Europe and the 2nd in the world in forest area - 17 million hectares.

There were problems with the ecological state in Sochi. Due to preparations for the Olympics, the state environmental review of the facilities under construction was canceled. Today, the organizers of the Olympiad refuse to comply with the main requirement of NGOs to relocate the facilities on the unique Grushevy ridge (sledge and bobsleigh track, Olympic mountain village and biathlon complex), the construction of which threatens to seriously damage the unique nature of the Caucasus and disrupt the migration routes of many animals.

In conclusion, we can say that the environmental status in Russia is not at the lowest level, comparing with other countries. The government is gradually realizing the importance of the environmental issue, and has finally begun to put the projects into practice. People at all levels of human society must be aware that, in an environment of ongoing loss of species and biological communities in the world, it is in their own interests to work to preserve the environment. If environmentalists can convince that the conservation of biodiversity is more valuable than any violation of it, then the peoples and their governments will begin to take positive action.

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2. Ecology of Moscow and sustainable development. Lecture Course for Teacher / Ed. G.A. Jagodina. - M .: MIOO, 2007.

3. Ecology of Moscow and sustainable development / Ed. G.A. Jagodina. M .: MIOO, "Intellect Center", 2008.