|Autism spectrum disorder|
Autistic disorder (abbreviated RASEnglish autism spectrum disorder, ASD, including outdated diagnoses: childhood autism, early infantile autism, atypical autism, Kanner’s autism, highly functional autism, pervasive developmental disorder without further elaboration, childhood disintegrative disorder and Asperger’s syndrome : 53) - a neuroontogenetic disorder, that is, a disorder of mental development with the onset in infancy or childhood, characterized by a persistent lack of ability to start and maintain social interaction and social connections, as well as limited interests and often repeated behavioral actions. The main characteristic of the disorder is a permanent deficit in social communication and social interaction: 50. The main deficits in people with an autism spectrum disorder are the skills of shared (that is, agreed with a communication partner) attention and reciprocity in the interaction. Among individuals with an autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation is often found: 40, but highly functional individuals with this disorder also occur.
Related features confirming the diagnosis
Persons with an autism spectrum disorder experience problems in social communication: for example, they cannot maintain dialogue, experience problems of social rapprochement, cannot share interests, emotions, all this can come to the inability to start or react to social interactions: 50.
Maintaining and understanding social relationships also suffers: from difficulties in making friends, difficulties in participating in games in which the imagination is involved, in extreme cases reaching a apparent lack of interest in any contacts with peers: 50.
There are also problems in non-verbal communicative behavior: an anomaly in eye contact (it is difficult for patients to maintain eye contact, moreover, it can cause discomfort), body language or body orientation, speech intonation, or problems in using and understanding the essence of non-verbal communication. Persons with ASD can learn several functional gestures, but their repertoire is less than that of other people, they cannot spontaneously use gestures in communication: 54. In extreme cases, it comes to the complete absence of eye contact, facial expressions or gestures: 50-54
Extremely limited and fixed on one interests are characteristic (there may also be a strong attachment to unusual objects): 50.
Pathological reaction to input sensory information (for example, apparent indifference to ambient temperature, indifference to pain, negative reaction to certain sounds or noises): 50.
Stereotype, repeatability of behavior, interests or activities in general: 50. This can manifest itself in stereotypical movements, in children - in building toys in a strict order, idiosyncratic phrases or echolalia (stereotypical repetition of phrases of other people): 50. Excessive need for constancy and consistency (for example, an unchanged daily routine, an unchanged walking route or a uniform meal): 50.
Many adults with an autism spectrum disorder learn to suppress stereotypical repetitive behavior in public; this is possible in people without mental retardation and speech difficulties: 54.
In the presence of a comorbid catatonic syndrome (catatonia) in a person with an autism spectrum disorder, an additional code 293.89 / F06.1 is used in DSM-5.
For the DSM-5 diagnosis of “autism spectrum disorder” (code 299.00 / F84.0), the symptoms listed in this section should cause a clinically significant impairment in the social, professional, or other important areas of daily functioning, otherwise the diagnosis is not made: 50.