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Allergy to aspirin: symptoms, how to replace the drug? Contraindications for the appointment of aspirin


Manifestations of allergies every day happen more often. And the list of products and medicines that provoke allergy attacks is constantly updated. So, one of the most common medications that lead to a specific reaction of the body is aspirin. Acetyl is used in many fields and is available at home for every person.

The drug is primarily known for its antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Headache, blood clots, various inflammatory processes, diseases of the heart and blood vessels - this is not the whole list of problems in which aspirin provides invaluable help. But in addition to its indisputable advantages, the medicine can lead to the development of a variety of side effects, including allergic reactions.

Causes of Allergy to Aspirin

Drug allergy to aspirin is a fairly common occurrence today. Moreover, the symptoms of this ailment most often occur in women aged 30 years, less often in men, and in children this body reaction to this drug is rare. The complete mechanism for the development of pathology has not yet been studied, therefore, the exact causes of allergies to aspirin are not currently known.

But you can definitely say that in people with a tendency to allergies, taking aspirin causes a disruption in the processes of arachidonic acid metabolism. There is also a theory that allergy to acetylsalicylic acid occurs as a result of the direct action of acetylsalicylic acid on mast cells. The use of aspirin simultaneously with alcohol (even in small doses) can also cause a specific reaction that provokes the development of an allergic reaction, and sometimes even stomach bleeding.

There are a number of factors that provoke the development of an allergy to aspirin:

  • the presence of diseases of a chronic form,
  • urticaria and blisters all over the body,
  • polyps in the sinus,
  • hematological diseases
  • bronchial asthma,
  • arthritis,
  • hereditary predisposition.

After taking aspirin, there may be some side effects that should not be confused with allergy symptoms:

  • stomach upset,
  • intestinal ulcers and bleeding,
  • bruising
  • high tinnitus of prolonged exposure.

Symptoms of an Aspirin Allergy

Most often, an allergy to aspirin manifests itself in the form of aspirin bronchial asthma, the beginning of which is prolonged rhinitis, which is difficult to respond to standard methods of treatment. If a person is allergic to aspirin, the symptoms may be as follows:

  • polyps appear in the nose,
  • purulent inflammation may occur,
  • nasal congestion,
  • clear mucus is released from the nose,
  • Smell decreases
  • headache, weakness,
  • asthma attacks
  • shortness of breath, intermittent breathing.

If you do not start timely treatment, then asthmatic attacks can occur. Shortness of breath, wheezing, and whistles when breathing begin to develop, which can acquire asthmatic status. In addition to all this, the patient may experience the following symptoms:

  • rash on the skin, redness, itching,
  • dry cough, frequent sneezing,
  • allergic conjunctivitis,
  • reduced performance, fatigue,
  • taste of bitterness in the mouth, heartburn,
  • stomach upset,
  • bloating
  • nausea, vomiting.

In the absence of a comprehensive treatment for allergies to aspirin, such a severe reaction of the body as anaphylactic shock can develop. If the patient is allergic to aspirin, how to replace it, you can find out from your doctor or any other experienced allergist.

Diagnosing an Allergy to Aspirin

If you find the above symptoms, you need to see a doctor as soon as possible. First of all, to identify an allergic reaction to aspirin, the doctor conducts oral provocative tests. The test consists in the controlled intake of acetylsalicylic acid, which provides confirmation or refutation of the diagnosis. But the most common blood test that determines the level of immunoglobulin E, which is usually prescribed to determine allergies, in this case will not bring the desired effect.

Also, in order to determine allergy to aspirin, provocative skin tests are performed. If there are suspicions of bronchial asthma, urticaria or purulent sinusitis, then the patient is given a placebo on the first day, and a small dose of aspirin on the next 2 days of testing. Doctors keep everything under control and check their health every 2 hours. If the reaction to the drug is negative, then the doctor selects the treatment.

Aspirin Allergy Treatment

The best way to treat any allergy is to eliminate interactions with the allergen. In case of an allergy to acetylsalicylic acid, this allergen is aspirin and other medicines containing acetylsalicylic acid. But there are situations when taking aspirin cannot be completely ruled out. This often happens after a heart attack, with rheumatism or coronary heart disease. In such cases, desensitization of the body is prescribed for people who use aspirin.

Desensitization therapy consists in a gradual decrease in the patient's sensitivity to aspirin. For this, the patient should take small doses of aspirin, which increase slightly every day. So, the body becomes immune to the drug. Also, antihistamines and antiallergic drugs are prescribed. If necessary, the doctor may attribute bronchodilators, sorbents, calcium gluconate. If polyps have formed in the nose that interfere with normal breathing, they must be removed.

In addition to all this, the patient must adhere to the following rules, which will quickly alleviate the condition:

  • immediately after the manifestation of the primary symptoms of allergies, you need to take a cold shower,
  • you need to wear clothes made from natural materials,
  • anti-inflammatory cream will help get rid of skin itching,
  • you need to drink an adsorbent, for example, activated carbon,
  • within a week, you should adhere to a hypoallergenic diet, which you can find out from your doctor,
  • get rid of bad habits, especially from drinking alcohol,
  • review your diet and exclude some foods that can lead to the development of an allergic reaction.

If a severe course of the disease and severe symptoms occur, you need to rinse your stomach and consult a doctor immediately.

Medical expert articles

Acetylsalicylic acid, also called aspirin, is referred to as such drugs that are universally and for a long time used during diseases characterized by inflammation and pain syndromes.

To date, it is known that aspirin leads to asthma (becomes its cause in 10% of cases), urticaria (0.3% probability), and in chronic urticaria in 23% of cases, relapse develops.

An allergy to aspirin also develops in patients with: atopy, female, if the DQw2 antigen is observed in the HLA phenotype and the frequency of the HLA antigen DPBI 0401 is reduced.

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Signs of an Allergy to Aspirin

The following symptoms are considered to be clinical manifestations of an allergy to aspirin:

  • the presence of anaphylactoid reactions, which can be caused by drugs such as zomepirac, tolmetin, diclofenac,
  • the presence of rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma - in case of chronic eosinophilic rhinosinusitis, when there is a certain amount of nasal polyps or not, and if there is a secondary purulent infection, with asthma, most often severe and cortical dependent. A classic triad is the presence of rhinitis accompanied by nasal polyps, bronchial asthma and sensitivity to aspirin,
  • the presence of skin manifestations - chronic urticaria, angioedema, isolated periorbital edema, Lyell syndrome (with fenbrufen, indomethacin, piroxicam), purpura (with phenylbutazone, salicylates), photodermatitis (with naproxen, pyroxicaprofen, tyaprofen)
  • the presence of hematological manifestations - eosinophilia, cytopenia,
  • with respiratory manifestations - pneumonitis (with fever, cough, pulmonary infiltrates). It is observed when the patient is sick with arthritis (its various types) and usually when naproxen, sulindac, ibuprofen, azapropazone, indomethacin, piroxicam, phenylbutazone, oxyphenylbutazone, diclofenac are used.

The clinical plan is described by a new triad: atopy, sensitivity to drugs against inflammation of the non-steroidal class, the development of anphylaxis, if the influence is exerted by house dust (exposure to an aeroallergen).

Symptoms of the respiratory system with an allergy to aspirin:

  • the presence of suffocation
  • the presence of asthmatic attacks,
  • shortness of breath
  • wheezing.
  • tingling in the lungs.

Symptoms of the digestive system with an allergy to aspirin:

  • the gastrointestinal tract is working
  • periodic or persistent indigestion,
  • excrement becomes light in color,
  • the presence of colic in the navel,
  • heartburn torments the patient
  • dryness and bitterness in the oral cavity,
  • unintentional burping.
  • increased threshold for gag reflex,

Symptoms of the nervous system with an allergy to aspirin:

  • the patient is tormented by headaches, up to migraines,
  • blood pressure rises
  • the occipital part of the head is numb,
  • the patient is dizzy,
  • the appearance of whistling in the ears,
  • general fatigue
  • apathy,
  • body temperature rises
  • the color of the skin changes
  • red spots appear on the patient’s body, around the circumference they peel off a bit,
  • primary stage of urticaria.

Aspirin: Composition of Tablets

The main active ingredient of the drug is acetylsalicylic acid, which determines the pharmacological effect of this agent. In addition, Aspirin includes substances that give the tablet its appearance and shape: cellulose and starch. They do not affect the effect of the drug.

The composition of "Aspirin Cardio" includes an enteric coating, which prevents the dissolution of the tablets in the stomach, which reduces the likelihood of ulcers. Substances that give the drug special properties - sodium bicarbonate and citric acid are part of the effervescent form of aspirin.

Reasons for the reaction

Some patients ask the rhetorical question, “Where does an allergy to aspirin come from?” The nature of this reaction has not yet been accurately determined. It is assumed that the appearance of intolerance is not associated with an independent reaction, but with other chronic allergic diseases. Studies confirm that more often it occurs in women.

With a predisposition to allergies, acetylsalicylic acid entering the body causes the appearance of antibodies that combine with antigens and the process develops. Mast cells that contain biologically active allergy substances are activated. Hypersensitivity develops, with repeated contact it causes the appearance of symptoms.

Risk factors

This is a widely used drug worldwide - aspirin. An allergy to a drug in an adult occurs in 0.04% of the world's population. The symptoms of this type of allergy are most often manifested in people who suffer from the following diseases:

  • chronic urticaria
  • bronchial asthma,
  • polyposis of the nasal cavity,
  • arthritis
  • allergic rhinitis
  • dermatitis
  • blood diseases.

Mild to moderate symptoms

The first signs of an allergy are manifested in respiratory disorders:

  • nasal congestion,
  • the formation of polyps that make breathing difficult,
  • the appearance of a liquid secret,
  • violation of smell.

Additional symptoms may include dizziness, headache, decreased performance, and weakness. The mild and middle group of symptoms include: a rash in the form of urticaria, nausea, vomiting, heartburn.

In the middle stage of an allergy to aspirin, a dry cough and shortness of breath are added to these symptoms. Purulent inflammation develops in the sinuses of the nose. Breathing becomes whistling.

Signs of severe complications

If you do not pay attention to the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease, then they begin to resemble attacks of bronchial asthma. This is the most common type of allergy to aspirin. The most serious condition is anaphylactic shock, which is characterized by a rapid onset and a rapid increase in symptoms. After taking the drug, a person experiences weakness, malaise, dizziness. Then breathing is disturbed and he loses consciousness.

The main sign of deterioration is a sharp decrease in blood pressure.

Diagnosis of the disease

After the first symptoms of an allergy to aspirin are discovered, it is required to establish which allergens caused it. An allergist prescribes a provocative test - a metered dose of aspirin, which, with allergies, exhibits characteristic symptoms.

In addition, a skin test is prescribed. For this, patients are given a placebo for two days, and aspirin on the third. After that, physicians examine the patient every two hours, recording the absence or appearance of local and general symptoms.

Often in the diagnosis of intolerance, an analysis is prescribed to determine the immunoglobulins E. Its result will be uninformative when responding to aspirin.

When the cause of the disease is established, the first method that helps to cope with any intolerance is the elimination of the allergen. It is necessary to exclude preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid and replace them with other medicines that the doctor will prescribe.

Desensitization therapy

When the replacement of “Aspirin” is impossible (after a myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke), doctors use the method of desensitization - a gradual decrease in sensitivity to aspirin. For this, the minimum dose of this drug is prescribed and gradually increase it. After a short time, sensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid disappears. To accelerate this process, antihistamines are prescribed.

First aid at home

To alleviate the condition of the patient caused by taking acetylsalicylic acid, the following rules must be observed:

  • When allergy symptoms appear, take a cool shower.
  • Take the adsorbent - "Smecta", "Enterosgel", "Filtrum", activated carbon.
  • Wear cotton clothing.
  • Antihistamines or anti-inflammatory creams - “Bepanten”, “Skin-Cap”, “Protopic” will help to remove skin itch.
  • Only then can antihistamines be taken - Tavegil, Suprastin, Diazolin, Zirtek.
  • In case of complicated breathing, inhalations are made (“Teofedrine”, “Salbutamol”) or taken orally “Eufillin” or “Broncholitin”.
  • To relieve dizziness, you should apply the following technique: lying on a hard, flat surface, raise your legs above your head to ensure blood flow. This will saturate the brain cells with oxygen.
  • A hypoallergenic diet is followed for at least 4 days.

How to replace "Aspirin"?

If you are allergic to aspirin, how can I replace this drug? You can use drugs from two different groups: anticoagulants and antithrombotic. If there is a threat of clot formation, then drugs based on another active substance - “Clopidogrel”, “Curantil” are used. Blood is diluted with Heparin, Warfarin.

Cheap allergy pills

It is no secret that new IV generation antihistamines are very effective, but are quite expensive. Many allergy sufferers are interested in whether there are cheap allergy pills? Yes, there are such drugs. These include:

  • “Loratadine” - 10 tablets 40 rubles.
  • Aleron - 10 pieces 78 rubles.
  • Diazolin - 10 pieces 80 rubles.
  • "Claridol" - 7 pieces of 95 rubles.